First Nawab of the Carnatic - Zulfikhar Ali Khan ( 1690 - 1703 )
Zulfikhar Ali Khan was the son of Nawab Azad Khan, Wazir (minister) of the Mughal Empire. He and his forefathers exercised powerful influence in the Court of the Mughal Empire.
The Emperor Aurungazeb had sent a large army to the South to fight with the Marathas, and Zulfikhar Ali Khan was its Commander-in-Chief. With him came Kam Baksh, the youngest son of the Emperor to the South.
In 1689, Zulfikhar Ali Khan laid siege to Gingee. But he was defeated in 1690 by the Marathas. However, in the same year he was created "Nawab of the Carnatic" by the Emperor, Aurungazeb, being made subject to the Subahdar (Viceroy) of the Deccan, the Nizam of Hyderabad. Though he was defeated in 1690 by the Marathas, Zulfikhar Ali Khan was not to leave the Marathas to go on. He made all efforts to gather men, ammunition and money for a successful war with them. In 1697, he rose against the Marathas with a strong reinforcement and defeated them near Tanjore. In 1698, he recaptured Ginjee also. In the critical efforts of Zulfikhar Ali Khan, to strengthen his army, Fort St. George's Governor Elihu Yale, the founder of Yale college, later to grow into Yale University in the U.S.A., helped in all possible ways. When a rebellion broke out in the Mughal army in latter years, Governor Yale rushed to Zulfikhar's rescue and the rebellion was suppressed by Zulfikhar Ali Khan.
Zulfikhar Ali Khan had a friendly relationship with the East India Company and with Governor Yale in particular. To improve their relationship with the Nawab, the East India Company used to send him presents now and then and assist him at the time of his need. In return for the assistance extended by the East India Company, during the war against the Marathas and the rebellion, Zulfikhar Ali Khan obtained "firmans" confirming the existing grants for the factories of Madras, Masulipatnam, Madapallam, Vizagapattinam, Fort St. David, Cuddalore and Porto Novo and making new grants of Egmore, Purasawalkam and Tondiarpet.
Zulfikhar Ali Khan, being the son of a responsible Officer of the Empire, enjoyed great influence with the Emperor, apart from being the Commander of the Mughal Army. He was the Governor of all the territories of the Emperor, South of the river Krishna. As the events went, it was the strong will and tireless efforts of Zulfikhar Ali Khan that made possible the recapture of the lost territories of the Mughals from the Marathas. It can therefore be said that he had earned the title of the Nawab by dint of his tireless efforts rather than bestowed with it.
Second Nawab of the Carnatic -
Daud Khan ( 1703 - 1710 )
In 1703, Daud Khan was appointed as the Nawab of the Carnatic, Before he was made Nawab, the Emperor appointed him Commanderin-Chief of the Mughal Army in 1701, even while Zulfikhar Ali Khan was the Nawab.
Daud Khan made his headquarters at Arcot. During his tenure, he made frequent visits to Santhome and tried to develop it. But due to the efforts of Pitt, the then Governor of the East India Company, Daud Khan had to defer his plans.
Like Zulfikhar Ali Khan, Daud Khan also enjoyed the confidence of the Emperor Aurungazeb and had control over all the territories south of the River Krishna. In one of his visits to Fort St. George, the Streets were lined with soldiers. The line of soldiers was from the St. Thome Gate upto the Fort and the certain of the inner Fort was manned by train bands. The Governor, Mr. Pitt, conducted him into the Fort, carried him upto his lodgings. Such was the respect he commanded with the East India Company.
Under the orders from the Emperor Aurangazeb, Daud Khan blockaded Madras for three months. After some negotiations between Daud Khan and the East India Company, the blockade was lifted.
On 5th of October 1708, Daud Khan gave a fireman grating the East India Company the five villages of Tiruvottiyur, Nungambakkam, Vysarpady, Kathiwakam and Sattangadu west of Tiruvottiyur.
In 1710, Daud Khan was recalled to Delhi to discharge more responsible work as Commander-in-Chief of the Mughal Army.
Third Nawab of the Carnatic -
Saadatullah Khan (alias) Muhammad Saiyid ( 1710 - 1732 )
Muhammed Saiyid was the Dewan to Daud Khan till 1710, when he was himself appointed as the Nawab of the Carnatic.
The honorific title of SAADATULLAH KHAN was given to him by the Emperor Aurungazeb. He was generally known as the First Nawab of Arcot. Like his predecessors, he also enjoyed control over all the territories of the Emperor, in the South. He also carried his contribution wars to the gates of Srirangapatnam and collected "peshkash" or tribute from its rulers.
In 1711, he started demanding the five villages granted in 1708 to the East India Company on the basis of insufficient grants. The English resisted and even prepared for a war. Saadatullah Khan demanded Egmore, Tondiarpet and Purasawalkam also. But the matter was settled amicably by the good offices of Sunkurama and Rayasam Papaiya, the Company's Chief Merchants.
After the death of Aurungazeb, due to the inability of his successor, the control of Delhi became weak. Having no children, Saadatullah Khan adopted his brother Ghulam Ali's son Dost Ali as his own and nominated him as successor. He had obtained the private consent of the Mughal Emperor for this step even without communicating his desire to the Nizam of Deccan.
Though the Nizam claimed supremacy over the Nawab, his control became very weak and he could not prevent the office of the Nawab from becoming hereditary and so he wisely restricted himself to claiming the right of giving his formal approval to their appointment. Thus Saadatullah Khan became a senior and independent ruler of the Carnatic extending from the River Godicame on the North to the borders of Travancore on the South and enclosed between the Eastern Ghats and the Sea.
Governor Collect, obtained from him in 1717, the fireman for Tiruvottiyur, Sattangadu, Kathiwakam, Vysarpady and Nungambakkam.
Fourth Nawab of the Carnatic -
Ali Dost Khan ( 1732 - 1740 )
Ali Dost Khan, often referred to as Dost Ali Khan by most historians, was the son of Ghulam Ali Khan, brother of the Nawab Saadatullah Khan. He was adopted by Saadatullah Khan as his son, as the latter had no children. He became the Nawab of the Carnatic in 1732, in succession to his uncle.
Dost Ali Khan had two sons, Safdar Ali and Hasan Ali and several daughters. He gave one daughter in marriage to Chanda Sahib whom he appointed as his Dewan and another to Murtuza Ali (who would, in later life, go on to kill Dost Ali Khan's son and successor as Nawab, Safdar Ali in 1742).
The Rajah of Tirusivapuram who was subordinate to the Nawab of Arcot refused to pay his tribute due to the Nawab. The Nawab, therefore, ordered Chanda Sahib, his Dewan to march against the Rajah. Thereupon the Rajah invited the assistance of Marathas. At the same time, the Nizam-ul-Mulk of the Deccan, who was not happy with the succession of Dost Ali Khan as Nawab of the Carnatic, incited the Marathas to invade Arcot.
The Marathas were too happy to oblige as they had received invitations from these two ends and readily availed of the situation. A large army was sent under Raghojee Bhonsle to invade the Carnatic.
Dost Ali Khan and Chanda Sabib met Bhonsle's army at Ambur. In the action, Dost Ali Khan was killed on the 20th May, 1740 and Chanda Sahib was taken prisoner to Poona by the Marathas.
Fifth Nawab of the Carnatic -
Safdar Ali Khan ( 1740 - 1742 )
Safdar Ali Khan was the son of Dost Ali Khan. After the death of his father in the battlefield at Ambur in 1740, he escaped to Vellore. In the same year, he was recognised as the Nawab of the Carnatic by the British.
There was total insecurity in the country during this period and Safdar Ali Khan took every possible measure to save his country and his family. He sent his son's wife to Madras for safety under the protection of the British, who securely lodged them in the Black Town.
But unfortunately he was murdered by his brother-in-law, Murthuza Ali in 1742.
Sixth Nawab of the Carnatic -
Muhammad Saiyid ( 1742 - 1744 )
The original name of Muhammad Saiyid was Sahid Zada. After the assasination of Safdar Ali Khan in 1742, the assasin Murthuza Ali claimed for himself the Nawabship of the Carnatic, Chanda Sahib who was taken prisoner to Poona by the Marathas and had managed to get released after certain negotiations, also supported the claims of Murthuza Ali.
But the English firmly supported Muhammad Saiyid and proclaimed him as the Nawab of the Carnatic. At the same time, the Nizam came with a strong force and settled the claim in favour of Muhammad Saiyid. As he was a minor at that time, his uncle Muhammad Anwaruddin was made the Regent during his minority. During this period, Benson, the Governor of Fort St. George obtained the Nawab's fireman in 1743 granting the villages of Perambur, Sadiankuppam, Ernavore, Pudubakkam and Vepery.
Muhammad Saiyid, as unfortunate as his father, was murdered in 1744 at Arcot even while as he was a boy. So with him the first dynasty of the Nawab of the Carnatic came to an end.
Seventh Nawab of the Carnatic
Muhammad Anwaruddin was the Yameen-us-Sultanat (the right hand man) of Nizam-ul-Mulk, the founder of the present Hyderabad State. He was also the ruler of Rajamundry. He was the direct descendent of Hazarath Omar (may Allah be pleased with him), the Second Caliph of Islam. Nawab Anwaruddin Khan was born at Gopamau, a place in Hardoi District, U.P., (India) in 1674 A.D. He was the son of Haji Muhammad Anwar.
He went to Delhi and enlisted in the imperial army and soon rose to a high position. The Emperor Aurungazeb was very pleased with him on account of his faithful work. He served as Governor of Surat. Also he was posted to Rajamundry, where he served for several years as Governor.
Muhammad Anwaruddin was first appointed as the Regent during the minority of Muhammad Saiyid. After the death of Muhammad Saiyid, Muhammad Anwaruddin was appointed by the Nizam as his Viceroy and Nawab of the Carnatic, on the 28th March, 1744. Thus he became the founder of the Second Dynasty of the Nawab of the Carnatic. Muhammad Anwaruddin was continuously maintaining a cordial relationship with the East India Company.
In 1746, the French and the English fought and achieve their supremacy in India, each over the other. The soil of the Carnatic became the arena of their action. In 1746, the French captured the English possessions at Madras and Cuddalore.
Muhammad Anwaruddin fought against the French on the banks of the Adyar and won a decisive victory, recaptured the two towns and restored them to the English. Thus, he maintained the honour of his administration and established the power of his "Nizamath" or government.
Muhammad Anwaruddin received overtures for support from both from the English and. the French, but supported the English. The French wanted to reduce the growing influence of the English in the Carnatic. So they supported Husayn Dost Khan, alias Chanda Sahib as the rightful Nawab of the Carnatic against Muhammad Anwaruddin, who was supported by the British.
As the British and the French supported their respective candidates for the Nawabship, they took sides in the case of the successors of the Nizam also. After the death of the Nizam in 1746, there arose a rivalry between Nazir Jang, the second son of the Nizam and Muzaffer Jang, the favourite grandson of the Nizam. Muzaffer Jang came to the South with a strong force and allied himself with Chanda Sahib and the French. Muhammad Anwaruddin, supported by the English, met the French army at Ambur in 1749 and was killed in the battle.
Eighth Nawab of the Carnatic
Muhammad Ali Wallajah (1749-1795)
Muhammad Ali Wallajah, son of Muhammad Anwaruddin was born in 1717. He was present at the battle of Ambur when his father, at the age of ninety, was defeated and slain by Chanda Sahib and the French in the year 1749. Muhammad Ali Wallajah escaped with the wreck of the army to Trichinopoly, of which place he was the Governor.
The English supported his claim to the throne (Musnad). But he was defeated in 1750 "and forced to fly to Arcot. Five years later, after Major-General Stringer Lawrence had repeatedly repulsed the French, he was formally invested as Nawab of Arcot in gratitude for the assistance he had rendered. By this time, his prime rival for the Nawabship took refuge with the Rajah of Tanjore (by whom he was later murdered). In 1754, the struggle between the English and the French ended with a treaty by which Muhammad Ali Wallajah was practically left the Nawab of the entire Carnatic.
In 1765, the Emperor of Delhi completely released him from all dependency upon or allegiance to the Wazir of the Deccan and thereby created him an independent ruler of the Carnatic. The Treaty of Paris of 1763 also acknowledged him as the Nawab and ally of the King of England.
Muhammad Ali Wallajah was the first sovereign ruler of the Carnatic.
In 1770, Admiral Sir John Lindsay arrived as the King's Minister to the Court of the Nawab Wallajah. Governor Dupleix strongly objected to such recognition of the Nawab. However, Wallajah was twice asked by the King of England to undergo the ceremony of his investiture with the insignia of the order of the Bath, first through Lindsay in 1771 and again through Sir Hector Munro in 1779, which he did in the Chepauk Palace, his residence. He supported the British against the French and was instrumental in the establishment of the British Empire in South India.
Lord Clive spoke highly of the Nawab's great qualities in London and paid glowing tributes to his sincerity and majestic ruling. On the 20th May 1773, when the British Ship “H.M.S. Wester” arrived at the Madras Fort, the Captain of the ship handed over a letter from the King of England reiterating the hope that his friendship with the Nawab should grow from generation to generation.
The Nawab was very glad to hear this and he immediately arranged for a grand Durbar to receive the letter. He distributed presents and held a Dinner for the Governor and entourage.
He was a loyal friend of the East India Company. It was unfortunate that his friendship was not reciprocated by the British. During the Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-84), the Nawab was even deprived of his administrative independence, as it was taken away by the English.
After the war, these powers were restored. During the Third AngloMysore War (1790-92), his administrative control was again taken away by the English.
As a man, Muhammad Ali Wallajah had a majestic bearing and as a ruler, he was kind to his subjects and noble to his foes. When the French, who were a constant source of irritation, were subdued; he did not bear any ill-feeling towards them, but treated them kindly. The Pondicherry Governor had very great regard and respect for the Nawab Wallajah.
During his reign, he did a great deal for the uplift of the people of South India. The Rajahs of Tanjore, Travancore and Pudukkottai were his vassals. Almost all the Zamindars of this State of Tamil Nadu owe their present position to the generosity of the Nawab and still sport their titles conferred by Nawab Wallajah.
Muhammad Ali Wallajah had not only mixed moderation in his politics, but also in religion. The Nawab respected all religions. Most of his trusted officials were Hindus. In spite of the presence of many Muslims in his Court, he entrusted the work of maintaining his personal diary to Kishan Chand, as he considered him a man of high integrity. Rajah periya Bahadur, the contractor of Mohamedpur in Arcot was a close friend of the Nawab. When he came to Madras on 9th February 1774, the Nawab convened a special Durbar to honour his visit.
In October 1773, some sepoys attempted to enter a temple at Tiruvarur, in spite of the objections of the "pandits" on learning this, Nawab Wallajah gave strict instructions to his Khazis that religious places should be respected and that the traditions of the places of worship should be maintained at all times.
The Nawab envinced great interest in the welfare of the people of South India. He built a large hospital in Madras, where the poor were given free medical treatment. He gave strict instructions to Hakim Ghulam Ali Khan, the head Hakim of the hospital that poor patients should be treated with utmost care and courtesy.
In those days, the ryots (peasants) were put to heavy losses on account of the marching of the armies through their agricultural fields. Nawab Wallajah used to pay full compensation to the ryots for the loss of the yield irrespective of the fact whether it was his own army or those of his enemy which caused the havoc.
He donated vast lands for the construction of mosques, temples and churches and maintained perfect religious harmony and unity amongst the members of different religious communities. It is a wellknown fact that the land of the Sri Padmanabha Swamy temple in Srirangam near Trichy was a gift of the Nawab, with a sizeable estate, which is called "Nawab Thottam" even today. Similarly in Tirupati, Tiruvarur, Tirunelveli and Madras lands were donated for Hindu temples.
The Nawab also permitted the establishment of the Christian Church in South India and not only gave lands to Christian mission, but also was present in person on the occasion of the inauguration of Dr. Schwartz's School in Trichy. This is still being mentioned year after year in the calendar of the Bishop Heber College at Trichy.
Nawab Wallajah constructed a number of mosques in South India. Almost all the mosques in the Carnatic were maintained either directly by him or by the large Endowments created by him. The Wallajah Big Mosque situated in Triplicane High Road, Chennai is one of the biggest mosques in South India. This Mosque is probably the only mosque in the entire world which contains a chronogram written by a non-Muslim (his Private Secretary Raja Makhan Lal Khirat).
Nawab Muhammad Ali Wallajah was a great patron of learning. He invited many people of his native place at Gopamou, Hardoi District, U.P., to come down and settle in the Carnatic. He treated the scholars and poets of this place with great honour and respect. He awarded "Jagirs' and lands to many people.
The Nawab had his own permanent staff stationed at Makkah in the Hijaz in Arabia for the distribution of charity to the poor there. He supplied a ladder covered with gold and silver at Makkah to enable the pilgrims to get into the precincts of the Kaaba during the Haj. He provided carpets and lights to the Prophet's Mosque in Madinah (Masjid-e-Nabavi). The Nawab had great respect for the Syeds, who were the descendents of the Holy Prophet. He set apart a sum of Rs.12,OOO/- (in 18th century rupees) every year for distribution to the Syeds.
The Nawab purchased two ships, "Safinathullah" and "Safinathun Nabi" for commerce and trade, but they were mainly used for transporting Haj pilgrims from the Carnatic. The Nawab also purchased lands and constructed Rubats (lodgings) which are known as "Arcot Rubats" in Arabia in the holy cities of Makkah and Madinah for the benefit of the pilgrims from South India. To this day, a number of pilgrims from Tamil Nadu take advantage of the benefits offered to them by the present Prince of Arcot, Nawab Mohammed Abdul Ali, who is the direct descendent of Nawab Wallajah. So long as Amir-ul-Umra, Nawab Wallajah's second son lived, his charities poured into Makkah and Madinah without reserve.
On 13th August 1773, the Nawab's army entered Tanjore and the Rajah was made a prisoner. By the 27th August 1773, the whole of Tanjore was captured by the Nawab's army. When the news of the victory was conveyed to the Nawab, he was overjoyed, at the prospect of accreation of land and wealth to his kingdom. But the Nawab met with his first disappointment when he found that nothing was left in the Rajah's Toshe Khana (Storehouse) except a few jewels and dresses of the ladies of the Palace, which he ordered his son, who conducted the campaign to return to the owners; which was duly done out of compassion. When the Rajah was defeated, Nawab Wallajah gave strict instructions to his son, Amir-ul-Umra that the Rajah's family should be treated with the utmost respect. He sent his pranam to the Mathaji, the mother of the Rajah and instructed his officers to attend to her comfort.
The Nawab built himself the famous Chepauk Palace in the year 1768 at this own cost. It lies in an area of 121 acres from the Cooum to Pycrofts Road. It comprised two blocks, the southern block called 'Kalas Mahal' in two floors, and the northern block called 'Humayun Mahal', which contained the Diwan Khana, (the land of which now accommodates the PWD Offices, Board of Revenue, Senate House, Madras University, State Guest House and M.A.C. Stadium).
The Senate House was built on the site of the Nawab of Carnatic's artillery park from where salvos were fined to greet visiting dignitaries.
The bathing pavilion of Nawab Muhammad Ali Wallajah, Nawab of the Carnatic subsequently became the residence of Governor Clive, and Wellesley and later the residence of the Surgeon-General.
It was demolished in 1930, and the Madras University Library and the Department of Research came up in its place. When Nawab Wallajah built a marine villa in the palace compound at the South end of the Cooum River, it was merely his personal bathing pavilion. For Governor Clive (1798-1803), it was a salubrious residence.
Governor-General Wellesly too stayed here during the operations of the last Mysore War in 1799, and later the Surgeon General moved in. In this august villa, the University of Madras housed the offices of the Tamil Lexicon and the Department of Indian History and Archaeology, till it was demolished in 1930. In 1795, Nawab Wallajah, the most celebrated of the Carnatic rulers passed away at the age of seventy-eight, after a glorious reign of forty-six years. His name is commemorated by a bastion and gate of Fort St. George and by the bridge outside it. The road which leads from Triplicane to the Palace is still known as Wallajah Road, The districts Wallajabad and Wallajahpet were named after Nawab Wallajah. He was buried at Santhome, Madras, but two years later his remains were conveyed according to his wishes to Trichinopoly, with full honours and buried at the feet of the holy saint Hazrath Tabray Alam.
Ninth Nawab of the Carnatic
( 1795 - 1801 )
Umdat-ul-Umra, the son of Muhammad Ali Wallajah came to the throne in the year 1795. He was named by his grandfather, Nawab Anwaruddin Khan as "Abdul Wali" and got the title 'Umdat-ul-Umra' from the Imperial Court of the Badshah of Delhi. He was also a sovereign ruler like his father, Nawab Wallajah.
Lord Hobart, .the Governor of Madras was offended by his neglecting to inform him the death of his father Muhammad Ali Wallajah, and more particularly for failing to invite him to his Coronation.
The Governor sent a message to Umdat-ul-Umra through his son that he should hand over some Taluks (districts) to the English Company instead of "qist" money. However, Umdat-ul-Umra was not agreeable to this and expressed to the Governor that the "qist" money would be paid only in cash, in accordance with the agreement signed between his father and Lord Cornwallis in 1787. When this was brought to the notice of the Governor-General in Council, he disapproved of the Governor's action and directed him to offer his congratulations on the Nawab's accession to the throne and also to accept the "qist" money in cash.
The British, during this time, were aiming at securing certain portions of the land of the Nawab. As stated above, they demanded certain Taluks to be transferred to them instead of qist money. On the fall of Srirangapatnam in 1799, it was claimed by the British that they had discovered both Umdat-ul-Umra and his father had been carrying on secret correspondence with Mysore against the interests of the British. The East India Company took excuse this as an opportunity in their favour to declare that they would no longer honour the treaty of 1792 made with Nawab Wallajah. Instead, they drafted a new treaty by which they resolved to assume the entire management and administration of the Carnatic.
Umdat-ul-Umra did not agree to this treaty. As he fell seriously ill at this time, the matter was not pressed for the moment by the British, but on the death of Umdat-ul-Umra in 1801 the British took coercive measures to enforce the treaty.
The English troops from the Fort took possession of the Chepauk Palace and a tent was pitched for Lord Clive within the precincts of the Palace. Ali Hussain (Taj-ul-Umra), the reputed son of Umdat-ul-Umra at first reluctantly accepted the terms; but subsequently rejected the offer made by the Governor. So, Azim-ud-Daula, the son of Amir-ul-Umra, the youngest brother of Umdat-ul-Umra was declared the next Nawab as he gladly agreed to sign the treaty of 1801 with the English.
Tenth Nawab of the Carnatic
Azim-Ud-Daula ( 1801 - 1819 )
Azim-ud-Daula was the son of Amir-ul-Umra, the second son of Muhammad Ali Wallajah. He succeeded his uncle in 1801.
Under the terms of the treaty of 1801, he had to give up the Civil and Military administration of the Carnatic to the East India Company and therefore he was the first titular Nawab of the Carnatic.
Azim-ud-Daula, as the titular ruler of the Carnatic was allowed one fifth (1/5th) of the net revenue or one lakh forty four thousand star pagodas annually, whichever was greater.
He was given the honour of 21 (twenty-one) gun salute. He died in 1819.
Eleventh Nawab of the Carnatic
Azam-Jah ( 1820 - 1825 )
Azam Jah was the eldest son of Azim-ud-Daula. He became the second titular Nawab of the Carnatic in the year 1820, after the death of his father, Nawab Azim-ud-Daula. His period also was an eventless one and he died in 1825, leaving a minor son, Ghulam Muhammad Ghouse Khan to continue as the Nawab.
Twelfth Nawab of the Carnatic
Ghulam Muhammad Ghouse Khan
( 1825 - 1855 )
Ghulam Muhammad Ghouse Khan succeeded his father, Azam Jah, but he was a year old at the time of the death of his father. His paternal uncle, Azim Jah was appointed as the Regent to the minor nephew in the year 1825, until he became a major in the year 1842 when he was installed as the Nawab by Lord Elphistone.
During the period of Nawab Ghulam Muhammad Ghouse Khan, the 'Madrasa-e-Aalia' which was created by Nawab Wallajah was shifted to the palace of princess Azamunissa, wife of the Nawab Ghulam
Ghouse Khan which is now known as "Madrasa-e-Azam" at Mount Road (Anna Salai).
The Nawab also created the Muhammadan Public Library and "Langear Khana" (Charitable kitchen and home) now known as the Muslim Widows Association of which the Collector of Chennai is the President. He died in 1855 without male issue. He was the last of the Nawabs who lived in the 'KalasMahal' (Chepauk Palace).
At this stage, the Doctrine of Lapse of Lord Dalhousie, the Governor-General, was applied and his sole legal heir, (in the absence of male issue of the last Nawab), his paternal uncle Azim Jah, who was the Regent during Nawab Ghulam Muhammad Ghouse Khan's minority was denied the succession. (The Doctrine of Lapse prevented anybody other than the own male issue of the Rajah or the Nawab from succession) .
On the death of the Nawab in 1855, Azim Jah pressed his claims to the succession and was represented by legal counsel in England.